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What was occurring in France during this time.?

What was occurring in France during this time.? Topic: What is case report form
June 16, 2019 / By Fowke
Question: From 1810-1813, what was historically occurring in France, or something that was big news there to talk of. I know some things, but I'd like to see what you all say. Thanks so much! PS. If you have specific details on the city of Marseilles, that would be SUPER SWELL
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Daw Daw | 2 days ago
Napoleon's Russian campaign started in 1812. The army was beaten by lice which distributed typhus. From a French report: The body lice thrived on their anguished hosts. Private Jakob Walter noted, "...the lice seemed to seek supremacy, for their number on both officers and privates was in the thousands." In his memoirs, Sergeant Bourgogne wrote, "I had slept for an hour when I felt an unbearable tingling over the whole of my body...and to my horror discovered that I was covered with vermin! I jumped up, and in less than two minutes was as naked as a new-born babe, having thrown my shirt and trousers into the fire. The crackling they made was like a brisk firing...". Private Walter's major asked him to kill the tormenting lice in his shirt collar. He wrote, "I did it; but when I had his collar open, his raw flesh showed forth where the greedy beasts had gnawed in." Returning in1813, the British Military Commissioner in the Russian outpost of Dorogobouche wrote (about the French army!!): "The naked masses of dead and dying men; the mangled carcasses of ten thousand horses, which had, in some cases, been cut for food before life had ceased, the craving of famine at other points forming groups of cannibals; the air enveloped in flame and smoke; the prayers of hundreds of naked wretches, flying from the peasantry whose shouts of vengeance echoed incessantly through the woods; the wrecks of cannon, powder-waggons, military stores of all descriptions, and every ordinary as well as extraordinary ill of war combined with the asperity of the climate, formed such a scene as probably was never witnessed to such an extent in the history of the world." For all this it must be known that only 2.6% of Napoleon's army had been victim of warfare. The rest was beaten by epidemics, mainly typhus.
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Daw Originally Answered: Are there naturally occurring sources of CO2?
You will need to think in terms of equilibrium states and what happens when you disturb these, not absolute values of sources and sinks (which are difficult to know.) An example may be a lake that is fed by rivers and feeds a river. There are large amounts of water coming in and large amounts of water going out, but the lake storage changes by much smaller amounts than the flows. And it is a lot easier to simply measure the height of the lake than it is to go around measuring all the various gallons of water coming into the lake via rivers and ground water and rain and leaving via evaporation and rivers and ground water. CO₂ in the atmosphere is kind of like that lake. Plants respirate huge quantities of CO₂, which is affected daily (by sun or its lack), seasonally, and regionally. We can make precise measurements and tell you what the "level" is several times a day. You can see the daily wobbles due to plant respiration (during the day, they photosynthesize and convert CO₂ into O₂, reducing the CO₂ level slightly and increasing the O₂ level slightly; at night, this reverses.) You can see the seasonal wobbles, as plants have shorter days in the winter and longer days in the summer. Since winter and summer don't occur at the same time in the northern and southern hemispheres, you can see variations in opposition to each other in opposite polar parts of the globe. There are three isotopes of carbon, two of which are NOT radioactive and one of which has a half life of only 5730 ± 40 years. C¹⁴ is the radioactive isotope and it is only produced on Earth by cosmic rays acting on the 80% nitrogen (N¹⁴) in the atmosphere and converting it into C¹⁴. Carbon in fossil fuels can ONLY be made up of C¹² and C¹³ -- it has zero C¹⁴ -- because it is isolated underground and sat there for millions of years. So besides the simple observation that CO₂ is rising on a gradual incline from around 290 ppmv 100-120 years ago to about 400ppmv now and that O₂ is declining in just the same necessary proportion to account for "burning" of the fossil fuels the quantities of which we know very well, we can also observe that the ratio of the C¹⁴ isotope, relative to the other two isotopes of carbon, is diluting out (because we are dumping burned fossil fuel C¹² and C¹³ into the atmosphere without any C¹⁴ in it), as well. These observations are consistent and there is no known alternative explanation. Humans today derive about 85% of their energy needs from fossil fuel burning. The bigger question decades ago wasn't, "are humans really burning enough fossil fuels to account for the observed rise since 1957?" But was, "why isn't the atmospheric CO₂ rising faster than it is?" Turns out the oceans account for a significant absorption of what we are dumping into the atmosphere. Once accounted for, the "balance sheets" looked much better. Life is a huge "flywheel" that stabilizes the atmosphere and the planet. But while life can do a lot, it isn't a panacea. Humans have changed the planet in dramatic ways. Complex biota converted into monocultures, for practical crop management; criss crossing lands with fencing and roads; diversion of rivers (Colorado, for one, to supply LA and California); dams; etc. Half of the world's forest systems from two centuries back now remain (Scientific American article on this, about 6-8 years ago.) And there is no financial incentive to keep what remains. Forests grow in value at about 1-2% per year. You can do much better just harvesting the wood immediately, if practical, and banking the money than sitting around waiting for it to grow. Humans and their domesticated animals (sheep, cows, dogs, chickens, etc.) now account for over 99% of the entire mass of all land animals. It's not a small impact. Every single system has been affected. I've lived long enough to see that in my own area. I used to catch a month's worth of smelt in the Sandy river (about 5 miles from where I live) in less than 30 minutes' time using a bucket. They are no longer a food source. Columbia river sloughs that teemed with fish and amphibians (I could dip a mason jar along almost anywhere within one as a kid and come up with about 30 guppies and tadpoles.) Today, there are no fish and no amphibians in any of them. Even though managed hatcheries release about 150 million farmed salmon smolts every year in my region, we observe less than 10% of the adult runs each year that used to abound when I was a kid. Yes, humans have impacts. There are natural sources AND sinks of CO₂. But they were in approximate equilibrium for quite some time. The rapid rise this last century is unparalleled in the very detailed ice record going back almost 800,000 years. We know exactly where it is coming from, too. It's no mystery.
Daw Originally Answered: Are there naturally occurring sources of CO2?
The "recent past" you refer to was prior to the beginning of multicellular life on the planet. Biological processes took that carbon out of the air and turned it into living beings, fossil fuel and rocks. You can see the biology still at work in the Keeling CO2 curve. The annual jaggedness of the curve shows carbon cycling between vegetation and the atmosphere depending on the seasonal growth and death of land plants. That jaggedness is a little larger than the amount the curve gets pushed upward each year. There are commercial records of how much fossil fuel we produce and burn each year, and the math to calculate CO2 output from this is straightforward accounting. The measured increase in atmospheric CO2 is less than 1/2 of the amount we put out from fossil fuel, with the leftover being approximately as much as the ocean uptake. For natural sources, such as volcanos, to have near as much influence on atmospheric CO2 as we do, the source would have to be nearly as large as manmade ones and there would also have to be an unidentified sink that is soaking up enough CO2 to compensate for it. That would still, of course, leave us with the known rise about equal to our output. Known volcanic outputs are much smaller than the human ones - pick the biggest recent volcano you can name and compare it with easy math to commercial output, or just look at the Keeling curve and see if you can find a volcanic event.
Daw Originally Answered: Are there naturally occurring sources of CO2?
The amount of CO2 created each modern year is small compared to what humans emit but volcanoes have been emitting for billions of years. Much of the CO2 in the atmosphere is absorbed into the ocean. The ocean became saturated in CO2 in some portions and it precipitated carbonates. These carbonates were theorized to be subducted into the the earth's mantle where they melted and rose up as magma to form volcanoes that emitted CO2. That CO2 got absorbed and continued the cycle. So we have a situation now where humans have emitted CO2 that mostly gets absorbed into the ocean. It is unclear how much the ocean could or would absorb. We have emitted enough for the CO2 to rise by 150 but it has only risen by 100 ppmV. The CO2 in the atmosphere is at 400 ppmV. Again it is unclear how much of that 100 is from humans. We don't know if, for example, how much of the rise might be from natural warming. If the atmosphere increases in CO2, the ocean should absorb more and precipitate more just based on basic chemistry. Apparently the ocean holds more than 50 times the amount of carbon that the atmosphere holds. This means that humans could only have emitted one in 400 / 50 * 50 or only one / 400th of what is in the ocean. I am skeptical of significant "global warming" too. I should point out there are lots of natural sources of CO2.
Daw Originally Answered: Are there naturally occurring sources of CO2?
you shouldn't really be skeptical sure, volcanoes produce CO2 but it's natural. the issue is that we release a lot of CO2 with factories, agriculture, cars etc - we are adding more and more CO2 and that is destroying the equilibrium

Daw Originally Answered: Internet speed extremely slow, occurring for days now, please help?
It can be because of other frequency interfering with the network connection. An example would be a wireless house phone that's on a 2.4 ghz frequency. That would interrupt the connection. To fix that, you can change the channel on the router. I'm sure you can find out how to change the channel of your router online. The internet is full of information. As for your internet plan, it is pretty low. If it's not the frequency, I suggest you reset the router. And if that doesn't work, you can try to connect a wire to see if the connection is fast again. If it is then there is something with your computer but if it's not the case, then it's the router or your internet provider. If that's the case, I suggest you call your internet provider about the problem. I have had this problem before and it was because of the router channel being interfered through wireless connection. So you might have had the same problem if you're using wifi.
Daw Originally Answered: Internet speed extremely slow, occurring for days now, please help?
Sometimes the computer applications might be slowing down your speed. You can download TCPView and find out what applications are currently using your internet traffic. You can even terminate those processes from TCPView which you feel is unnecessary. Eg: Some updates run without my prior consent. I open TCPView and terminate those which I feel unnecessary. It increases my browsing speed. It is lightweight and convenient software. (it has been tested by Microsoft) Download link: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-in/sysinternals/bb897437.aspx

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